Technological Engineering for Traditional Coconut Oil Making
AbstractThis study aims to determine the effect of pineapple extract concentration and duration of fermentation on the characteristics and good quantity and to determine the concentration of pineapple extract and fermentation duration that can produce coconut oil with the highest yield with characteristics that meet Indonesian National Standard No. 01-2902-1999. This research was carried out at the Food Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Warmadewa. This research is a factorial experiment with Randomized Block Design (RBD) consisting of 2 (two) factors, namely: factor I, pineapple extract concentration composed of 4 levels, namely pineapple extract concentration 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. Factor II, fermentation duration consisting of 3 degrees, 12 hours, 24 hours and 36 hours. The variables observed for coconut oil include objective observations namely analysis of oil yield, water content, free fatty acid levels, peroxide numbers, levels of impurities and acid numbers. While subjective views include the test of flavor, color, taste and overall acceptance, the best quality of coconut oil is objectively obtained in the addition of 15% pineapple extract with 12 hours of fermentation. Subjectively the influence of each treatment on the highest variable of color, flavor, taste, and acceptance was obtained in the addition of 25% pineapple extract with 12 hours of fermentation. Compared to Indonesian National Standard No. 01-2902-1999 found that the tested variables met the requirements except for oil impurities that were still very high (more than 0.05%) and the water content in the pineapple extract treatment was 10%, and fermentation duration was 36 hours exceeding the standard of 0.533% (SNI requirements maximum of 0.5%).
Winarno, F.G. (1984). Kimia Pangan dan Gizi. Gramedia. Jakarta.
Che-Man, Y. B., Suhardiyono, A. B., Asbi, M. N., Azudin, & L. S. Wei. (1996). Aqueous enzymatic extraction of coconut oil. JAOCS. 73 (6): 683-685.
Salahudin, F. & Nana, S. (2014). Ekstraksi Minyak Kelapa secara Fermentasi untuk Mempertahankan Mutu Asam Lemak Rantai Sedang. Biopropal Industri, 5 (1): 23-28.
SOEKA, Y. S. (2008) ‘Biochemical analysis of extracting fermented coconut oil’, Biodiversitas, Journal of Biological Diversity, 9(2), pp. 91–95.
Setiaji, B. & Surip (2006). Membuat VCO Berkualitas Tinggi. Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya.
Purwaningsih (2017). Potensi Enzim Bromelin Sari Buah Nanas (Ananas comosus l.) Dalam Meningkatkan Kadar Protein Pada Tahu. Jurnal Teknologi Laboratorium, 6 (1): 39-46.
Sari, T. I., Herdiana, E., & Amelia, T. (2010). Pembuatan VCO Dengan Metode Enzimatis dan Konversinya Menjadi Sabun Padat Transparan. Jurnal Teknik Kimia, No. 3, Vol. 17, Agsutus 2010.
Sangi, M. S. (2011). Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Batang Buah Nenas Untuk Kualitas Minyak Kelapa. Jurnal Ilmiah Sains. Vol. 11 No. 2.
Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI), (1999). Standar Mutu Minyak Kelapa. Nomor 01-2902-1999.
Winarno, F. G. (2002). Enzim Pangan dan Gizi. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta.
Djatmiko, B. (1973). Minyak dan Lemak. Departemen Teknologi Hasil Pertanian. Fatemeta. IPB Bogor.
Widnyana (2005). Mempelajari Karakteristik Minyak Kelapa Yang di Buat Secara Fermentasi Dengan Penambahan Ekstrak Nanas, Getah Pepaya dan Air Kelapa. Skripsi. Program Studi Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Warmadewa. Denpasar.
Irfandi (2005). Karakterisasi Morfologi Lima Populasi Nanas (Ananas comosus L.) Merr. Skripsi Bidang Studi Holtikultura Fakultas Pertanian Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).