Analysis of Proposed Adaptation of Fostered Environment and Evaluation of Built Environment in Bali in Facing Covid-19

  • I Nyoman Gede Maha Putra Department of Architecture, Universitas Warmadewa
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Built Environment, Architecture, Urban Design

Abstract

At the time this paper started being written, the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic had been taking place for more than a year. To date, it has caused fear in society because the number of deaths it causes is nearly 3 million people, the effectiveness of the vaccines being developed is uncertain and there is no convincing drug available. As a result, the virus having hit almost all countries and regions around the world has affected the way humans behave and will have an impact on the architectural design and urban spaces in which humans live. This paper explores the possible criteria for architectural design and urban design in response to a pandemic, particularly in Bali. Plural society serves as the characteristic of the island whose inhabitants have traditional activities mixed with modern trends. The mixed society has a rich tradition of communal living with social activities involving large masses of people. To produce post pandemic design criteria, this study critically reviewed recent publications including peer-reviewed articles, journals, and expert’s blog posts. In the next stage, the results of the review were used to evaluate activity patterns and fostered environment at several locations in Bali. The locations observed included traditional houses in Ubud, urban houses in Denpasar, offices, and traditional markets. Secondary data were organised into several themes. Meanwhile, field observations were focused on the possibility of implementing Health protocols in different places as well as community compliance in complying with them. This study found that during the period of limiting community activities due to the pandemic, health, safety and environmental hygiene had received the attention of all groups. The study also revealed that the built environment tried to make many adjustments. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of these adjustments is questionable. For this reason, further research that will produce new built spaces needs to be carried out. It will result in the need for more detailed design criteria as a mechanism to prevent the spread of the virus.

References

Gelebet, I. N. (1982). Arsitektur Tradisional Daerah Bali. Denpasar: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Proyek Inventarisasi dan Dokumentasi Kebudayaan Daerah.

Donder, I. K. (2001). Panca Dathu: Atom, Atma, dan Animisme. Surabaya: Paramita.

Putra, I. G. (2003). Perubahan Ekspresi Konsep Natah dalam Tata Ruang di Bali. Jurnal Permukiman Natah , 1 (2), 52-58.

Attoe, W. (1978). Architecture and Critical Imagination. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Putra, I. G. (2005). Catuspatha: Konsep, Transformasi, dan Perubahan. Jurnal Permukiman Natah , 3 (2), 62-71.

Leiden, U. (2016). Leiden University Libraries: Digital Collections. Retrieved March 28, 2021, from https://digitalcollections.universiteitleiden.nl/

Agung, A. A. (1989). Bali abad XIX, Perjuangan Rakyat dan Raja-Raja Menentang Kolonialisma Belanda 1808-1908. Denpasar: Gajah Mada Univ. Press.

Chaplin, C. (Director). (1932). Chaplin in Bali [Motion Picture]. US.

LePan, N. (2020, March 14). Visualizing the History of Pandemics. Retrieved from www.visualcapitalist.com: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/history-of-pandemics-deadliest/

Editors, H. (2020, December 21). Pandemics that changed history. Retrieved April 1, 2021, from History: https://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages/pandemics-timeline

Onishi, N., & Méheut, C. (2021, March 31). Macron Returns France to Lockdown as Vaccinations Lag. Retrieved from The New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/31/world/europe/france-lockdown-macron.html

Ghosal, S., Bhattacharyya, R., & Majumder, M. (2020). The impact of complete lockdown on total infection and death rates: A hierarchical cluster analysis. Diabetes a& Metabolic Syndrome , 14 (4), 707-711.

Goldstein, P., Yeyati, E. L., & Sartorio, L. (2021, March 30). voxeu cepr Research-based policy analysis and commentary from leading economists. Retrieved from www.voxeu.org: https://voxeu.org/article/declining-effectiveness-lockdowns

Haug, N., Geyrhofer, L., Londei, A., Dervic, E., Desvars-Larrive, A., Loreto, V., et al. (2020). Ranking the effectiveness of worldwide COVID-19 government interventions. Nature Human Behaviour , 4 (12), 1302-12.

Felsenthal, M. (2020, June 8). COVID-19 to Plunge Global Economy into Worst Recession since World War II. Retrieved April 1, 2021, from The World Bank-IBRD-IDA: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2020/06/08/covid-19-to-plunge-global-economy-into-worst-recession-since-world-war-ii

McGahey, R. (2021, March 31). The Economic Recovery Is At Risk If We Stop Protections Against Covid-19. Retrieved April 1, 2021, from Forbes: https://www.forbes.com/sites/richardmcgahey/2021/03/31/the-economic-recovery-is-at-risk-if-we-stop-protections-against-covid-19/?sh=6bfc90765504

Guenther, R., & Vittori, G. (2013). Sustainable Healthcare Architecture, 2nd Edition. New York: Wiley.

Chaika, K. (2020, June 17). How the Coronavirus Will Reshape Architecture. Retrieved April 1, 2021, from The New Yorker: https://www.newyorker.com/culture/dept-of-design/how-the-coronavirus-will-reshape-architecture

Salama, A. M. (2020). Coronavirus questions that will not go away: interrogating urban and socio-spatial implications of COVID-19 measures. Emerald Open Research , 2 (14), 1-16.

Maturana, B., Salama, A. M., & McInneny, A. (2021). Architecture, urbanism and health in a post-pandemic virtual world. Archnet-IJAR , 15 (1), 1-9.

Ravenscroft, T. (2021, March 21). Norman Foster, Virgil Abloh and more share their thoughts on the global impact of Covid-19. Retrieved March 31, 2021, from www.dezeen.com: https://www.dezeen.com/2021/03/11/coronavirus-pandemic-impact-norman-foster-virgil-abloh-sevil-peach/

Pert, A., & Liddicoat, S. (2020, August 18). Architecture and design in a post-pandemic world . Retrieved April 2, 2021, from www.pursuit.unimelb.edu.au: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/architecture-and-design-in-a-post-pandemic-world

Bahadursingh, N. (2020, MAy 21). 8 Ways COVID-19 Will Change Architecture: The way we design, build and inhabit cities may never be the same. Retrieved March 31, 2021, from www.architizer.com: https://architizer.com/blog/inspiration/industry/covid19-city-design/

Hercules, W. J., Anderson, D., & Sansom, M. (2020, March 24). Architecture Is a Critical Ingredient of Pandemic Medicine. Retrieved April 1, 2021, from www.architectmagazine.com: https://www.architectmagazine.com/practice/architecture-is-a-critical-ingredient-of-pandemic-medicine_o

Jang-Won, L. (2020, May 31). Changes in architectural design inevitable in post-COVID-19 era. Retrieved April 2, 2021, from www.thejakartapost.com: https://www.thejakartapost.com/life/2020/05/31/changes-in-architectural-design-inevitable-in-post-covid-19-era.html

Varma, A., & Jafri, M. S. (2020). Covid-19 responsive teaching of undergraduate architecture programs in India: learnings for post-pandemic education. Archnet-Ijar , 189-202.

Güzelci, O. Z., Kumsal, A., Bayra, Ş., S. A., Güzelci, H., Işık, E., et al. (2020). Design tactics for enhancing the adaptability of primary and middle schools to the new needs of post-pandemic reuse. Archnet-IJAR , 146-166.

Alnusairat, S., Maani, D. A., & Al-Jokhadar, A. (2020). Architecture students' satisfaction with and perceptions of online design studios during COVID-19 lockdown: the case of Jordan universities. Archnet-IJAR , 219-236.

Alnusairat, S., Maani, D. A., & Al-Jokhadar, A. (2020). Architecture students’ satisfaction with and perceptions of online design studios during COVID-19 lockdown: the case of Jordan universities. Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research , 15 (1), 219-236.

Ceylan, S., Şahin, P., Seçmen, S., Somer, M. E., & Süher, K. H. (2020). An evaluation of online architectural design studios during COVID-19 outbreak. Archnet-IJAR , 15 (1), 203-218.

Peters, T., & Halleran, A. (2020). How our homes impact our health: using a COVID-19 informed approach to examine urban apartment housing. Archnet-IJAR , 15 (1), 10-27.

Bettaieb, D. M., & Alsabban, R. (2020). Emerging living styles post-COVID-19: housing flexibility as a fundamental requirement for apartments in Jeddah. Archnet-IJAR , 15 (1), 28-50.

Putra, I. D. (2020). “Stay at home” for addressing COVID-19 protocol: learning from the traditional Balinese house. Archnet-IJAR , 15 (1), 64-78.

Chaturvedi, K., Vishwakarma, D. K., & Singh, N. (2020). COVID-19 and its impact on education, social life and mental health of students: A survey. Children and Youth Services Review , 1-6.

Giacobbe, A. (2020, March 18). How the COVID-19 Pandemic Will Change the. Retrieved April 2, 2021, from www.architecturaldigest.com: https://www.architecturaldigest.com/story/covid-19-design

Published
2021-05-12
Section
Articles
Abstract viewed = 138 times
PDF downloaded = 48 times