Peranan Laboratorium dalam Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) HIV

  • Sri Ratna Dewi
  • Umi S. Intansari

Abstract

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) adalah retrovirus RNA yang dapat menyebabkan penyakit klinis, yaitu Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Transmisi virus dari ibu ke anak (mother to child transmission/MTCT) dapat terjadi melalui darah maternal, sekresi saluran genital, dan ASI. Risiko penularan HIV dari ibu ke bayi dapat ditekan hingga 2% dengan program PMTCT. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk memaparkan tentang peran laboratorium dalam mendukung program PMTCT HIV. Dalam hal ini laboratorium memegang peranan yang penting dalam mendeteksi HIV secara dini dan diikuti dengan evaluasi. Untuk menentukan bayi tidak mengidap HIV, diperlukan minimal dua kali pemeriksaan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) RNA HIV dengan hasil negatif, yaitu pada usia 4-6 minggu dan pada usia 4-6 bulan. Pada saat bayi berusia 18 bulan dilakukan pemeriksaan antibodi terhadap HIV dengan cara Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) untuk konfirmasi. Laboratorium memegang peranan penting dalam melakukan deteksi dini HIV serta membantu dalam proses follow up sehingga dapat mendukung program PMTCT.                                                                        

Kata kunci: PMTCT, HIV, PCR, ELISA

 

 

 [Laboratory Role In The Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV]

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a RNA retrovirus which causes the clinical disease termed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) may occurred because of the intrapartum maternal blood exposure, infected genital tract secretions and during breastfeeding. The aim of this paper is to explain the role of laboratory to support PMTCT program. Laboratory plays an important role in PMTCT, that given the starting point of PMTCT is early detection of HIV and followed by evaluation. To determine the baby does not have HIV, it takes at least two times the HIV RNA PCR with negative results, (at 4-6 weeks of age and at the age of 4-6 months). And then infants examined for HIV antibodies by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for confirmation at 18-month-old. Laboratory has an important role to support diagnose of HIV and their follow up, so it can be support PMTCT program.

Keywords: PMTCT, HIV, PCR, ELISA

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Published
2017-08-25
How to Cite
Dewi, S. R., & S. Intansari, U. (2017). Peranan Laboratorium dalam Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) HIV. WMJ (Warmadewa Medical Journal), 2(1), 33-43. https://doi.org/10.22225/wmj.2.1.74.33-43
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Articles
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