Case-Control Research on Hypertension Risk Factors in Karangasem Village, Karangasem Regency, Bali

  • Wayan Satwika Adhikara

Abstract

Hypertension is still a health problem globally. Several studies have been conducted to find the relationship between risk factors with the incidence of hypertension. There is no data yet on risk factors for hypertension in the community, especially in Karangasem Regency, Bali. This study aims to find the correlation of various risk factors with the incidence of hypertension in Karangasem Regency, Bali. A case-control studies was conducted on 100 subjects. Cases and controls were selected using consecutive sampling technique. Logistic regression was used to predict various risk factors for hypertension. The results showed a significant relationship with age (OR = 2,452; p = 0.047; 95% CI = 0.999-6.018), family history (OR = 4,373; p = 0.001; 95% CI = 1,854-10,316), BMI (OR = 3,341; p = 0.004; 95% CI = 1,440-7,753), smoking (OR = 2,698; p = 0.021; 95% CI = 1,148-6,341), high salt consumption (OR = 2,571; p = 0.024; 95% CI = 1,122 -5,895) and coffee consumption (OR = 3,451; p = 0.016; 95% CI = 1,220-9,759), while no significant relationship was found between sexes (OR = 0.712; p = 0.476; 95% CI = 0.279 - 1,818), and alcohol consumption (OR = 0.786; p = 0.548; 95% CI = 0.358-1.725). We found an association between several risk factors (age, family history, BMI, smoking, high salt consumption, and coffee consumption) and the incidence of hypertension in the Karangasem Village, Karangasem Regency, Bali.

References

Pradhan D. The Association Between Smoking and Hypertension in Ukraine. [Tesis]. Faculty of Health Sciences. University of Eastern Finland. 2014. p:1–50. Available from: http://epublications.uef.fi/pub/urn_nbn_fi_uef-20140570/urn_nbn_fi_uef-20140570.pdf. (Accessed: 2015, December 1st)

Kirtania K, Sultana N, Ahmed S and Khatun A. Association of Hypertension and Smoking with Ischaemic Stroke. Bangladesh J Med Biochem. 2010. 3: 16–18. Available from: http://www.banglajol.info/bd/index.php/BJMB/article/viewFile/13802/9916. (Accessed: 2015, December 1st)

Puavilai W, Laorugpongse D, Prompongsa S, et al. Prevalence and Some Important Risk Factors of Hypertension in Ban Paew District, Second Report. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2011; 94: 1069. Available from: http://thaihypertension.org/files/154.banpaew.pdf. (Accessed: 2015, December 5th)

World Health Organization. A Global Brief on Hypertension: Silent Killer, Global Public Health Crisis. 2013. Available from: http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/79059. (Accessed: 2015, December 9th)

Longo D, Fauci A, Kasper D, Hauser S, Jameson J and Loscalzo J. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th Edition. McGraw-Hill Education, 2011.

Setyanda YOG, Sulastri D and Lestari Y. Hubungan Merokok dengan Kejadian Hipertensi pada Laki-Laki Usia 35-65 Tahun di Kota Padang. Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas. 2015; 4. Available from: http://jurnal.fk.unand.ac.id/index.php/jka/article/viewFile/268/257. (Accessed: 2015, December 1st)

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Riset Kesehatan Dasar. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2013. Available from: http://www.depkes.go.id/resources/download/general/Hasil%20Riskesdas%202013.pdf. (Accessed: 2015, December 4th)

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Laporan Hasil Riset Kesehatan Dasar (RISKESDAS) Nasional 2007. Jakarta: Badan Litbangkes, Depkes RI. 2007. Available from: http://terbitan.litbang.depkes.go.id/penerbitan/index.php/blp/catalog/download/63/92/242-1.pdf. (Accessed: 2015, December 15th)

Kartikasari AN, Chasani S and Ismail A. Faktor Risiko Hipertensi pada Masyarakat di Desa Kabongan Kidul, Kabupaten Rembang. [Skripsi]. Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro. 2012.

Anggara FHD and Prayitno N. Faktor-Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Tekanan Darah di Puskesmas Telaga Murni, Cikarang Barat Tahun 2012. Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan. 2013; 5: 20-5.

Sugiharto A. Faktor-Faktor Risiko Hipertensi Grade II Pada Masyarakat (Studi Kasus di Kabupaten Karanganyar). [Tesis]. Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro, 2007.

Anderson GH. Effect of Age on Hypertension: Analysis of Over 4,800 Referred Hypertensive Patients. Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation. 1999; 10: 286. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/article.asp?issn=1319/2442;year=1999;volume=10;issue=3;spage=286;epage=297;aulast=Anderson. (Accessed: 2016, December 27th)

Ota H, Furuhashi M, Ishimura S, et al. Elevation of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4 is Predisposed by Family History of Hypertension and Contributes to Blood Pressure Elevation. American journal of hypertension. 2012; 25: 1124-30. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3449332/pdf/ajh201288a.pdf. (Accessed: 2016, December 28th)

Mannan H. Faktor Risiko Kejadian Hipertensi di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Bangkala Kabupaten Jeneponto Tahun 2012. 2013. Available from: http://repository.unhas.ac.id/bitstream/handle/123456789/5745/JURNAL%20MKMI%20HASRIN.pdf?se. (Accessed: 2016, December 28th)

Pradono J and Junaidi P. Pengaruh Faktor Komposisional dan Faktor Kontekstual Terhadap Kejadian Hipertensi di Jawa dan Bali. Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. 2015; 25: 97-106.

Hendy H, Lanang Sidiartha IG and Putu Nilawati GA. Obesity is Associated With Hypertension in Adolescents. Medicina. 2013; 44. Available from: http://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/medicina/article/download/11054/7857. (Accessed: 2016, December 29th)

Skinner AC, Perrin EM, Moss LA and Skelton JA. Cardiometabolic Risks and Severity of Obesity in Children and Young Adults. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015; 373: 1307-17.

Kotsis V, Stabouli S, Papakatsika S, Rizos Z and Parati G. Mechanisms of Obesity-Induced Hypertension. Hypertension Research. 2010; 33: 386-93. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20442753. (Accessed: 2015, December 12th)

Li H, Tong W, Wang A, Lin Z and Zhang Y. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Blood Pressure Stratified by BMI in Mongolian Population, China. Blood pressure. 2010; 19: 92-7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20070251.(Accessed: 2015, December 22th)

Narayana I and Sudhana IW. Gambaran Kebiasaan Merokok dan Kejadian Hipertensi Pada Masyarakat Dewasa di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Pekutatan I Tahun 2013. E-Jurnal Medika Udayana. 2015; 4. Available from: http://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/eum/article/download/12682/8667.(Accessed: 2016, December 29th)

Bowman TS, Gaziano JM, Buring JE and Sesso HD. A Prospective Study of Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Incident Hypertension in Women. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2007; 50: 2085-92.

Mozaffarian D, Fahimi S, Singh GM, et al. Global Sodium Consumption and Death from Cardiovascular Causes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014; 371: 624-34.

Fujita T. Mechanism of Salt-Sensitive Hypertension: Focus on Adrenal and Sympathetic Nervous Systems. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2014; 25: 1148-55.

Martiani A and Lelyana R. Faktor Risiko Hipertensi Ditinjau Dari Kebiasaan Minum Kopi (Studi Kasus Di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Ungaran Pada Bulan Januari-Februari 2012). Program Studi Ilmu Gizi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro. 2012. Available from: http://eprints.undip.ac.id/38404/1/451_AYU_MARTIANI_G2C007012.pdf.(Accessed: 2016, December 29th)

Mesas AE, Leon-Muñoz LM, Rodriguez-Artalejo F and Lopez-Garcia E. The Effect of Coffee on Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease in Hypertensive Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2011: ajcn. 016667.

Lee G and Schafer AI. Goldman’s Cecil medicine. Twenty-Fourth Edition. 2012; 27: 375,1414

Lip GYH and Hall JE. Comprehensive Hypertension. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2007.

Komaling JK, Suba B and Wongkar D. Hubungan Mengonsumsi Alkohol dengan Kejadian Hipertensi pada Laki-Laki di Desa Tompasobaru II Kecamatan Tompasobaru Kabupaten Minahasa Sselatan. Jurnal Keperawatan. 2013; 1.

Published
2020-05-29
How to Cite
Adhikara, W. S. (2020). Case-Control Research on Hypertension Risk Factors in Karangasem Village, Karangasem Regency, Bali. WMJ (Warmadewa Medical Journal), 5(1), 22-29. https://doi.org/10.22225/wmj.5.1.1108.22-29
Section
Articles
Abstract viewed = 142 times
PDF downloaded = 79 times