Women and Dirty Money: How Women are Affected by, Involved, and Counter Money Laundering

  • Kartini Laras Makmur Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Indonesia
Keywords: gender equality, money laundering, women empowerment

Abstract

Money laundering is a growing threat to global and Indonesian national development. Similar independent research has been minimal and has resulted in gender facets of development in general without determining to what extent women are undermined by, involved, as well as counter money laundering. This research discusses on how women can engage in the fight against money laundering, how money laundering specifically undermine women and what about the involvement of women in money laundering offense. The objective of this research is to promote women empowerment and integrate gender perspectives in improving anti-money laundering actions. The principal approach of this research is analytical descriptive using document and content analysis to observe the gendered aspect of money laundering. In this way, the findings may contribute to strengthening women’s engagement in anti-money laundering efforts. The result of this study shows that the involvement of women in anti-money laundering can strengthen prevention attempts, foster trust, and improve community outreach. This role is due to the money laundering specific consequence for women such as the decrease of public revenue available for gender equality services and programs. In addition, since women are less likely to tolerate tax evasion and money laundering, the more women in law enforcement, especially in decision-making roles and consideration to gender-sensitive responses make policing in anti-money laundering more effective.

References

Achim et al, M. V. (2021). The Impact of the Development of Society on Economic and Financial Crime; Case Study for European Union Member States. Risks Vol. 9 No. 97, 97.

Aluko, A., & Bagheri, M. (2012). The Impact of Money Laundering on Economic and Financial Stability and on Political Development in Developing Countries: The Case of Nigeria. Journal of Money Laundering Control Vol. 15 No. 4, 442-457.

Ardizzi et al., P. (2014). Money Laundering as a Crime in the Financial Sector: A New Approach to Quantitative Assessment, with an Application to Italy. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking Vol. 46 No. 8, 1555-1590.

Arsovska, J., & Allum, F. (2014). Introduction: Women and Transnational Organized Crime. Trends in Organized Crime Vol. 17, 1-5.

Baird, A. (2016, April 19). The Masculinities of Gang Violence in Latin America and Caribbean. Retrieved July 21, 2021, from World Peace Foundation: https://sites.tufts.edu/reinventingpeace/2016/04/19/the-masculinities-of-gang-violence-in-latin-america-and-caribbean/

Bonello, D. (2019, April 26). Women in Guatemala: The New Faces of Extortion? Retrieved July 21, 2021, from InSight Crime: https://insightcrime.org/investigations/women-guatemala-new-faces-extortion-2/

Brück, T., & Müller , C. (2010). Comparing The Determinants of Concern About Terrorism and Crime. Global Crime Vol. 11 No. 1, 1-15.

Bugge, A. (2017, May 31). People Smugglers Make $35 Bln A Year on Migrant Crisis: IOM Head. Retrieved July 21, 2021, from Reuters: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-portugal-migration/people-smugglers-make-35-bln-a-year-on-migrant-crisis-iom-head-idUSKBN18R26H

Dev, S. M. (2018). Inequality, Employment and Public Policy. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics Vol 61, 1-42.

Dollaret al., D. (2001). Are Women Really the Fairer Sex? Corruption and Women in Government. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization Vol. 46 No. 4, 423-429.

Feinstein, D. (2012). Acupoint Stimulation in Treating Psychological Disorders: Evidence of Efficacy. Review of General Psychology Vol. 16 No. 4, 364-380.

Garbarino, E., & Slonim, R. (2009). The Robustness of Trust and Reciprocity Across A Heterogeneous U.S. Population. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization Vol. 69 No. 3, 226-240.

Garsd, J. (2017, May 23). Uganda's abducted kids try to get their lives back to normal. Retrieved July 21, 2021, from The World: https://www.pri.org/stories/2017-05-23/ugandas-abducted-kids-try-get-their-lives-back-normal

Grondona, V., Ponte, N. B., & Enriquez, C. R. (2016, December). Illicit Financial Flows Undermining Gender Justice. Retrieved Junly 22, 2021, from Dawnet: https://www.dawnnet.org/sites/default/files/articles/illicit_financial_flows_undermining_gender_justice.pdf

Hagel, J. (2020, October 13). Treasury Unit Warns Banks of Unemployment Fraud . The Wallstreet Journal.

Hübschle, A. (2014). Of bogus hunters, queenpins and mules: the varied roles of women in transnational organized crime in Southern Africa. Trends in Organized Crime Vol. 17, 31-51.

I Wayan Yasa Nugraha. (2013). The Impact of Corruption and Money Laundering on Foreign Direct Investment in ASEAN. Jurnal Ekonomi Kuantitatif Terapan Vol. 6 No. 2, 106-111.

Jha, C., & Sarangi, S. (2018). Women and Corruption: What Positions Must They Hold To Make A Difference? Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization Vol. 151 Is. C, 219-233.

Jurado, B., Alejandro, I., Jurado, B., Mauricio, D., López, B., & Gabriel, L. (2018). Money Laundering and Its Influence on the Productivity and Economic Development of A Country. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Science Vol. 9 No. 2, 222-242.

Kirya et al., M. (2020). Corruption in the Time of COVID-19: A Double-threat for Low Income Countries. Retrieved July 21, 2021, from U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Center: https://www.u4.no/publications/corruption-in-the-time-of-covid-19-a-double-threat-for-low-income-countries

Kleemans et al., E. R. (2014). Women, Brokerage and Transnational Organized Crime. Empirical Results From the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor. Trends in Organized Crime Vol. 17, 16-30.

Kriegler, A. (2012, June 19). A New Look at Women and Organised Crime. Retrieved July 21, 2021, from Institute for Security Studies: https://issafrica.org/iss-today/a-new-look-at-women-and-organised-crime

Mandel, H. (2009). Configurations of Gender Inequality: The Consequences of Ideology and Public Policy. The British Journal of Sociology Vol. 60 No. 4, 693-719.

Martínez, I. F., & Atuesta, L. H. (2018). Mourning Our Dead: The Impact of Mexico’s War on Drugs on Citizens’ Depressive Symptoms. International Journal of Drug Policy Vol. 60 , 65-73.

McDevitt, A. (2009). Money Laundering and Poverty Reduction. Governance and Social Development Resource Centre.

McDowell, J. (2001). The Consequences of Money Laundering and Financial Crime. Economic Perspectives, An Electronic Journal of the U.S. Department of State Vol. 6 No. 2, 6-8.

Merkle, O. (2019). The Gendered Dimensions of Illicit Financial Flows. Retrieved July 22, 2021, from U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre: https://www.u4.no/publications/the-gendered-dimensions-of-illicit-financial-flows

Pereira, F. B. (March 2020). Do Female Politicians Face Stronger Backlash for Corruption Allegations? Evidence from Survey-Experiments in Brazil and Mexico. Political Behavior, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-020-09602-9.

Pinotti, P. (2015). The Causes and Consequences of Organised Crime: Preliminary Evidence Across Countries. The Economic Journal Vol. 15 No. 586, F158-F174.

Quirk, P. J. (1996, 6 1). IMF eLibrary. International Monetary Fund Working Paper Vol. 1996 No. 066, 42.

Rose, K. J. (2020). Money Laundering Regulation: A Positive Spillover Effect on Tax Inequality (Agenda). Copenhagen Business School Law Research Paper No. 20-26.

Saferworld. (2014). Masculinities, Conflict and Peacebuilding; Perspectives on Men Through A Gender Lens . London: Saferworld.

San, M. v. (2011). The Appeal of ‘Dangerous’ Men. On The Role Of Women In Organized Crime. Trends in Organized Crime Vol. 14, 281-297.

Schultze-Kraft, M. (2018). Organised Crime, Violence and Development: Topic Guide Update. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.

Selmini, R. (2020). Women in Organized Crime. Crime and Justice Vol. 49, 339-351.

Shaw, M., & Skywalker, L. L. (2017, March). The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime. Retrieved July 21, 2021, from Global Initiative: https://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/TGIATOC-Gangs_-violence-and-the-role-of-women-and-girls-1837-web.pdf

Siegel, D. (2014). Women in transnational organised crime.

Siegel, D. (2014). Women in Transnational Organised Crime. Trends in Organised Crime Vol. 17 No. 1, 52-65.

Siegel, D., & de Blank, S. (2010). Women Who Traffic Women: The Role of Women In Human Trafficking Networks – Dutch Cases. Global Crime Vol. 11 No. 4, 436-447.

Stockemer, D. (2011). Women's Parliamentary Representation in Africa: The Impact of Democracy and Corruption on the Number of Female Deputies in National Parliaments. Political Studies Vol. 59 No. 3, 693-712.

Swamy, A., Knack, S., Lee, Y., & Azfar, O. (2001). Gender and corruption. Journal of Development Economics Vol. 64 No. 1, 25-55.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2013). Risk of Money Laundering through Financial and Commercial Instruments. Bogota DC: UNODC.

Vlcek, W. (2008). Development vs. Terrorism: Money Transfers and EU Financial Regulations in the UK. British Journal of Politics & International Relations Vol. 10 No. 2, 286-302.

Vlcek, W. (2011). Global Anti-Money Laundering Standards and Developing Economies: The Regulation of Mobile Money. Development Policy Review Vol. 29 No. 4, 415-431.

Wängnerud, L. (2015). The Principles of Gender-Sensitive Parliaments . New York: Routledge.

Published
2022-03-14
How to Cite
Makmur, K. L. (2022). Women and Dirty Money: How Women are Affected by, Involved, and Counter Money Laundering. Jurnal Hukum Prasada, 9(1), 35-44. https://doi.org/10.22225/jhp.9.1.2022.35-44
Abstract viewed = 106 times
PDF downloaded = 97 times