Caregivers Experience in Performing Interpersonal Communication and Directive Speech Acts With Elderly in Japan and Bali Nursing Home

  • Ni Komang Purwaningsih STIKES Bina Usadha, Bali
  • Agus Darma Yoga Pratama Universitas Warmadewa
Keywords: Caregivers, Elderly, Interpersonal Communication, Directive speech acts


An increasing number of elderly in Japan and Indonesia, especially Bali, has led to increased health needs to care for them in nursing homes. Health workers, such as caregivers, are the closest people to communicate directly with the elderly. Communication can be called interpersonal communication which is a process of direct information or transfer of understanding of two or more people. Good interpersonal communication will build closeness and intimacy in the process of delivering messages. Therefore this study tried to analyze the experience of caregivers in implementing interpersonal communication and also determine the form of directive speech acts used by caregivers in caring for the elderly in nursing homes. The method used in this research was a qualitative descriptive method by phenomenological approach. The results showed that interpersonal communication applied by caregivers in caring for the elderly provided verbal and non verbal interpersonal communication. In addition, in the communication process of caregive-elderly is also formed directive speech act including prohibitions, requests and questions. In conclusion, caregivers need to have the ability to communicate effectively with elderly.


Ariel, M. (2008). Pragmatics and Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from

Awad, A. G., & Voruganti, L. N. P. (2008). The Burden of Schizophrenia on Caregivers. Journal of Pharmacoeconomics, 26(2), 149–162. Retrieved from

DeVito, J. A. (2013). The Interpersonal Communication Book 13th Edition. United States of America: Pearson Education Limited.

Dewi, S. P. A. A. P., Purwaningsih, N. K., & Lindawati, N. P. (2017). Diction Analysis in making Empathetic responses for Diabetic of Nursing Student in STIKES Bina Usada Bali. LITERA : Jurnal Litera Bahasa Dan Sastra, 3(1), 88–97. Retrieved from

Febrianita, R., & Hardjati, S. (2019). The Power of Interpersonal Communication Skill in Enhancing Service Provision. Journal of Social Science Research, 14, 3192–3199. Retrieved from

Forsgren, E., Skott, C., Hartelius, L., & Saldert, C. (2016). Communicative barriers and resources in nursing homes from the enrolled nurses’ perspective: A qualitative interview study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 54, 112–121. Retrieved from

Karumi, A. N. (2016). Peran Perawat dalam Komunikasi Antarpribadi dengan Lansia untuk Membangun Kreativitas (Studi Kasus di Panti Sosial Tresna Werdha Nirwana Puri Samarinda). E-Journal Ilmu Komunikasi, 4(2), 102 – 111. Retrieved from

Kung, W. B. (2003). Chinese American Caregiver of Patient with Schizophrenia, Family Challenges. New York: Guildford.

Maskhuri, S. A. (2017). Komunikasi Interpersonal Perawat Dengan Lansia (Studi Deskriptif Kualitatif Komunikasi Perawat Dengan Lansia di Panti Jompo Aisyiyah Kota Surakarta dalam Membangun Kedekatan). Program Studi Ilmu Komunikasi Fakultas Komunikasi Dan Informatika Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta. Retrieved from FORMAT PERPUS.pdf

McMullan, A., Parush, A., & Momtahan, K. (2015). Transferring Patient Care: Patterns of Synchronous Bidisciplinary Communication Between Physicians and Nurses During Handoffs in a Critical Care Unit. Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing, 30(2), 92–104. Retrieved from

Pratiwi, D. A. D. P., & Lestari, M. D. (2019). Gambaran dukungan sosial dan penyesuaian diri pada perempuan pegawai negeri sipil prapensiun di Provinsi Bali. Jurnal Psikologi Udayana, 6(2), 328–336. Retrieved from

Purwaningsih, N. K., & Dewi, S. P. A. A. P. (2019). The Analysis of Speech Act in Verbal Communication between Healthcare Professional and Patients in Public Health Centre Branch Kerobokan Kelod. Journal of English Educational Study (JEES), 2(1), 11–20. Retrieved from

Saadati, H., Shoaee, F., Pouryan, A., Alkasir, E., & Lashani, L. (2014). Effectiveness of Gestalt Group Therapy on Loneliness of Women Caregivers of Alzheimer Patients at Home. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, 12(22), 54–58. Retrieved from

Searle, J. R. (1985). Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from

How to Cite
Purwaningsih, N. K., & Yoga Pratama, A. D. (2020). Caregivers Experience in Performing Interpersonal Communication and Directive Speech Acts With Elderly in Japan and Bali Nursing Home. RETORIKA: Jurnal Ilmu Bahasa, 6(1), 78-84.
Abstract viewed = 121 times
PDF downloaded = 83 times