Chinese Initial Teaching Scheme Designed for Indonesian Beginners

Keywords: initials, comparison, acquisition, chines Initials, teaching scheme


As a part of the primary stage of Chinese phonetic teaching, the importance of Chinese initial teaching is self-evident, as initial pronunciation errors can affect the results of communication. Therefore, when Indonesian students begin to learn Chinese phonetics, they should first master the pronunciation characteristics of Chinese initials. This study has made a deeper exploration based on previous studies. This study aims to propose an initial teaching scheme for Indonesian beginners built on sorting out. Through comparison between the consonant systems in Chinese and Indonesian languages, analysis of the difficulties of Indonesian students' acquisition of Chinese initials, and investigation of the arrangement of initials in the “Scheme of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet”, this study has designed a Chinese initial teaching scheme for Indonesian Chinese beginners with the purpose of improving the quality of Chinese initial teaching in Indonesia. Literature integration analysis and a qualitative research method were adopted in this study. By integrating existing literature and combining them with the authors’ own research findings, the design of the initial teaching scheme is optimized. The design features of this scheme are mainly reflected in the following aspects: first, arranging Chinese initials from easy to difficult to learn; second, strengthening the teaching and practice of Chinese initials which are different from Indonesian initials and simplifying those of Chinese initials which are identical to Indonesian initials; third, using the Indonesian alphabet or syllables as a guide to bring out Chinese initials. All of these can be regarded as the main results of this study and can be used as reference for further studies.

Author Biography

Haryono Candra, Wuhan University
School of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Chinese Language and Literature


Chaer, A. (2013). Fonologi bahasa Indonesia. Retrieved from Rineka Cipta.

Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding second language acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Huang, B. R., & Liao, X. D. (2017). Modern Chinese. Beijing: Higher Education Press.

Ji, A. F., & Cai, A. J. (2013). Comparison of Indonesian and Chinese phonetics and analysis of Chinese phonetics difficulties for Indonesian students. Overseas Chinese Education, 1, 79–87. Retrieved from

Lin, X. Y. (2010). Comparison of phonological systems in Chinese and Indonesian language and its teaching strategies. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Chinese Language Teaching, 397–404. Shenyang: Volumes Publishing Company.

Lin, Y. G., & Wang, G. P. (2005). Experimental study on Indonesian students’ acquisition of Chinese stop and affricate initials. Language Teaching and Linguistic Studies, (4), 59–65. Retrieved from

Lin, Y. T. (2006). Comparison of Indonesian and Chinese phonetics and Chinese phonetics teaching (Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, China). Retrieved from

Lu, J. M. (2016). The quality and basic skills of Chinese teachers. Beijing, China: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

Tang, G. J. (2012). A comparison between Indonesian and Chinese phonetics. In Excerpts from Chinese Proficiency Test Training Handout of School of Chinese Language at Jinan University. Guangzhou, China: Jinan University Press.

Wang, G. P. (2008). Experimental study on Chinese initials perception for Indonesian students. Language Teaching and Linguistic Studies, (5), 32–38. Retrieved from

Wounde, S., Mularsih, H., & Simanjuntak, D. L. (1999). Bahasa Indonesia untuk mahasiswa jurusan non-bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia: UPT Penerbitan Universitas Tarumanagara.

Zhang, H. S. (2006). Chinese can be taught in this way (language elements). Beijing, China: Higher Education Press.

How to Cite
Candra, H., & Sukma, Y. G. (2020). Chinese Initial Teaching Scheme Designed for Indonesian Beginners . RETORIKA: Jurnal Ilmu Bahasa, 6(1), 7-17.
Abstract viewed = 113 times
PDF downloaded = 61 times